al-haitham is open source

I have benefited a lot from the open source community and it’s time to give back, I uploaded the source code of my graduation project which proposes a real time computer vision system  implemented on FPGA to translate human gestures into computer commands 

 First I would like to thank my graduation project team members:

   Ahmed Hafez Khalil

   Asmaa Omar

   Amani Mohamed Sedek

   Mohamed Ismail Khalil

   Mohamed Kamal Ali

   Mohamed Maged Abdel Majed

 

and here are the links to my grad project github repos: 

Hardware repo : https://github.com/aabdelfattah/alhaitham-hardware

Software repo : https://github.com/aabdelfattah/alhaitham-software

Have a look at thd brochure I designed for the EED competition 2012 which we won its 1st place 🙂

project-brochure-1

Cross-compiling a Pie ! The Raspberry Pi Ultimate Guide

Hi,

During the last few weeks I was interested in cross-compiling for the RPi. I have gone through many tutorials and blog posts to get the task done , so I tried to compile as many information as I can in this guide as a future reference and to help everybody else [The post is long, use CTRL+F for navigation].

Topics:

  1. Getting started , setting up the cross-compilation toolchain.
  2. Hello World! Building an RPi C application using shell.
  3. Hello World 2! Building an RPi C application using eclipse.
  4. Remote debugging the RPi with gdb on eclipse + RSE plugin.
  5. Updating your kernel. RPi Kernel cross-compilation.
  6. Extra: How does the bootloader work ?? 

 

Let’s get started with cross-compiling a Pie , there are usually 2 configurations : 

  • either to build the tool chain yourself on your host machine;
  • or to get a pre-compiled toolchain (the Canadian cross).

pi12

pi13

[images from free-electrons embedded training slides]

 

For this guide I will be using pre-built linaro toolchain(the second way),still I encourage you to try to build the toolchain yourself  for the sake of knowledge using one of those excellent tutorials :  A and B

Now, let’s download the Linaro gcc toolchain [source]


$ sudo apt-get install git rsync cmake ia32-libs

$ mkdir raspberrypi

$ cd raspberrypi

$ git clone git://github.com/raspberrypi/tools.git

Add the cross-compile to your $PATH

$ export PATH=$PATH:$HOME/raspberrypi/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin

And finally append the very same line to the end of your ~/.bashrc file to make the change permnant

That’s it, now try

$ arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -v 

should give you something like this

Using built-in specs.
COLLECT_GCC=arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc
COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/home/ahmed/raspberrypi/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin/../libexec/gcc/arm-linux-gnueabihf/4.8.3/lto-wrapper
Target: arm-linux-gnueabihf
Configured with: /cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/src/gcc-linaro-4.8-2014.01/configure --build=i686-build_pc-linux-gnu --host=i686-build_pc-linux-gnu --target=arm-linux-gnueabihf --prefix=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/install --with-sysroot=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/install/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran --disable-multilib --enable-multiarch --with-arch=armv6 --with-tune=arm1176jz-s --with-fpu=vfp --with-float=hard --with-pkgversion='crosstool-NG linaro-1.13.1-4.8-2014.01 - Linaro GCC 2013.11' --with-bugurl=https://bugs.launchpad.net/gcc-linaro --enable-__cxa_atexit --enable-libmudflap --enable-libgomp --enable-libssp --with-gmp=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-mpfr=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-mpc=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-isl=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-cloog=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --with-libelf=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/.build/arm-linux-gnueabihf/build/static --enable-threads=posix --disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-linker-build-id --enable-plugin --enable-gold --with-local-prefix=/cbuild/slaves/oorts/crosstool-ng/builds/arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian-linux/install/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc --enable-c99 --enable-long-long --with-float=hard
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.8.3 20140106 (prerelease) (crosstool-NG linaro-1.13.1-4.8-2014.01 - Linaro GCC 2013.11)

Now let’s build a simple application , use your favorite editor to write helloworld.c

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
   printf("Hello world \n");
   return 0;
}

and compile it using the usual gcc way

$ arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -o helloworld helloworld.c

Copy this to your Pi with a USB flash memory or on the sd card or whatever suits you, launch it and it should work !

pi@raspberrypi:~$ ./helloworld

Hello world

pi@raspberrypi:~$

Now, Let’s add our toolchain to eclipse : 

  •  install C/C++ cross-compiler support plugin;

pi14

  • from the menu File >> New Project >> C-Project >> Cross-Compile project , input the name of your project and hit next;
  • enter arm-linux-gnueabihf- as Tool command prefix and ~/raspberrypi/tools/arm-bcm2708/gcc-linaro-arm-linux-gnueabihf-raspbian/bin as the tool command path , hit next and finish;

pi16

  • Congratulations 🙂 !!

It’s important to be able to debug your code online on the RPi, so we are going to use a nice plugin called RSE to do this [source]:

You may use this source code HelloDebug.c if you wish:

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
	int i = 0;
	printf("Hello world \n");
	while (i < 1000)
	{
		printf("%d \n",i);
		i++;
	}
	return 0;

}
  • install the RSE plugin;

pi15

  • create a new project with the above source, build it in debug mode (not release);
  • add a new connection to your RPi from the Remote Systems window (if you can’t see it , add it from Window >> Show View >> Others >> Remote Systems) , then hit the tiny button to add an ssh connection to your pi;

pi19

  • copy the elf executable to the pi using RSE (right click to copy it and paste it on the dir you wish from the stfp menu);

pi20

  • make sure to chmod+x the execultable;
  • now we will add a new debug configuration , right click on the project and select Debug as >> Debug Configurations  and add a new C/C++ Remote Application configuration;
  • pi17
  • ensure that in Debugger >> Main tab the debugger is arm-linux-gnueabihf-gdb
  • login to your pi using ssh to launch the gdbserver $sudo gdbserver your-linux-pc-ip:any-free-port  HelloDebug

pi18

  • back to eclipse , ensure that you have the right connection parameters in Debugger >> Connection tab where you should pick the RPi IP and the port number you previously picked.
  • That’s it !! click Debug and enjoy debugging 🙂

pi11

Now , there is an excellent tutorial for compiling the kernel [this is not my work,  I am just copying it here for future reference because it’s short and to the point ]also elinux wiki has a good compilation:

Create our working directory:

$ mkdir -p raspberrypi/kernel
$ cd raspberrypi/kernel

Before starting our work, install the necessary tools and source code of Raspberry Pi linux:

$ git clone https://github.com/raspberrypi/tools.git
$ git clone https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux.git

Prepare the .config file from pre-packaged config, bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig:

$ cd linux
$ make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- bcmrpi_cutdown_defconfig

Build kernel:

$ make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi-
$ mkdir ../modules
$ make modules_install ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=/usr/bin/arm-linux-gnueabi- INSTALL_MOD_PATH=../modules/
$ cd ../tools/mkimage/
$ ./imagetool-uncompressed.py ../../linux/arch/arm/boot/Image

Now insert a Raspbian installed SD Card, and run the command:

$ sudo rm /media/<boot-partition>/kernel.img
$ sudo mv kernel.img /media/<boot-partition>/
$ sudo rm -rf /media/<rootfs-partition>/lib/modules/
$ sudo rm -rf /media/<rootfs-partition>/lib/firmware/
$ cd ../../modules/
$ sudo cp -a lib/modules/ /media/<rootfs-partition>/lib/
$ sudo cp -a lib/firmware/ /media/<rootfs-partition>/lib/
$ sync

Now you can remove the SD Card and use it to boot Raspberry Pi with the new kernel.

pi8

Finally , here is a nice answer on stackexchange about How the Pi boots and another nice reference :

  1. When the Raspberry Pi is first turned on, the ARM core is off, and the GPU core is on. At this point the SDRAM is disabled.
  2. The GPU starts executing the first stage bootloader, which is stored in ROM on the SoC. The first stage bootloader reads the SD card, and loads the second stage bootloader (bootcode.bin) into the L2 cache, and runs it.
  3. bootcode.bin enables SDRAM, and reads the third stage bootloader (loader.bin) from the SD card into RAM, and runs it.
  4. loader.bin reads the GPU firmware (start.elf).
  5. start.elf reads config.txtcmdline.txt and kernel.img

loader.bin doesn’t do much. It can handle .elf files, and so is needed to load start.elf at the top of memory (ARM uses SDRAM from address zero). There is a plan to add elf loading support to bootcode.bin, which would make loader.bin unnecessary, but it’s a low priority (I guess it might save you 100ms on boot).

How did I turn my old crappy Pentium 4 PC into a nice home network data cloud ?

Do you have an old PC lying somewhere with a lot of dust all over it ? Do you want a local data cloud to sync all your files across your laptop, tablet, PCs ? 

Then, I guess this tutorial will come in handy.

– First step is to dust your machine off , when I first plugged in my machine it didn’t even boot except when I really cleaned it well but sadly one RAM stick died because of dust . Now I am stuck with only 256 MB of RAM on my P4 2.8 GHZ machine but that didn’t set me back !

image

Download, burn and install your favorite Linux distro  as ownclowd supports many distros, but note that this tutorial is debian-based, I am using debian wheezy 7.4 standard(no desktop)

– Remember that we are dealing with a server now:

  • It’s important that when the machine restarts because of a power cut for example; it should always boot to your server OS without any external intervention because we will only use ssh and won’t connect any IO devices to the server machine (keyboard,mouse,monitor…etc.)  , also make sure to configure your BIOS settings (boot device, order..etc.) .
  • To save power disconnect any unneeded peripherals(for ex: I disconnected my Nvidia VGA card and DVD ROM ) , not sure if it will do much saving for this old machine but better than nothing.

– Set a static IP to your local server , for a Debian server you can follow the following instructions from elinux which were originally written for the raspberry pi but the will work perfectly here:

You only need to modify the file /etc/network/interfaces

Before you do, backup the current version of the interfaces file, if there is already one present:

 pi@raspberry:sudo cp /etc/network/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces.sav

You can edit the file with any text editor such as vi or vim.

We need root privileges, so we use sudo:

 pi@raspberry:sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces

In the interfaces file look for a line such as:

 iface eth0 inet dhcp

This is to enable the DHCP client. You do not want this to work any more.

Put a hash at the beginning of the line to disable it or delete it:

 #iface eth0 inet dhcp

In the file you must insert the following lines:

 # The loopback interface
 auto lo
 iface lo inet loopback
 auto eth0
 iface eth0 inet static
 #your static IP
 address 192.168.1.118  
 #your gateway IP
 gateway 192.168.1.1
 netmask 255.255.255.0
 #your network address "family"
 network 192.168.1.0
 broadcast 192.168.1.255

Only the address and netmask data are strictly required.

If for example your LAN is configured to have IP adresses in the range x.x.x.1 to x.x.x.255, you will put x.x.x.0 in the network line.

“address” is the IP you want the RPi will assume (in the proper range, as described above). pay attention not to use an IP already used by another device in your LAN or that can be assigned to a device by your router by DHCP (set the DHCP range of the router wisely in order to avoid potential overlaps).

“netmask” will “always” be 255.255.255.0

gateway is usually x.x.x.1 (your router IP or the one given by your ISP)

You now need to restart the network:

 pi@raspberry:sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

– Install ownclowd using the following techcint great tutorial , I recommend you to fully read it to understand what you are doing but here is a cheat sheet of the commands 

# apt-get install apache2 apache2-doc apache2-utils mysql-server mysql-client php5 php5-mysql php5-gd
# mysql -u root -p
mysql> create database cloud ; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> grant all on cloud.* to yourname@localhost identified by 'my_password'; 
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
# wget http://download.owncloud.org/community/owncloud-6.0.0a.tar.bz2
# cp owncloud-6.0.0a.tar.bz2 /var/www/		
# tar -jxvf owncloud-6.0.0a.tar.bz2
# rm -rf owncloud-6.0.0a.tar.bz2
# chmod -R 777 owncloud/
# a2enmod rewrite
# a2enmod headers
# nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/default

Find

AllowOverride None

Change this to:

AllowOverride All
# service apache2 restart

VOILA ! You should be up and running now using :  http://your-ip-address/owncloud

Now , you should create the admin user  and remember to enter the mysql user and database to get it ready .

Don’t go yet as there is a last step,   php is set to have a max upload of 2 MBs which is useless so you have to configure it a bit :

Note: The order of the following steps is important! If you swap steps described below, the settings may fail.

Go to the admin section in the ownCloud-WebUI and do the following:

  • Under “File handling” set the Maximum upload size to the desired value (e.g. 16GB)
  • Click the “save”-Button

Open the php.ini – file

  • Under Debian or SUSE and their derivatives this file lies at /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
  • On Windows, you can find this file within C:/Program Files (x86)/PHP/PHP.ini

Do the following:

  • Set the following three parameters inside th php.ini to the same value as chosen inside the admin-section one step before:
  • upload_max_filesize = 16G (e.g., to stay consistent with the example value above)
  • post_max_size = 16G (e.g., to stay consistent with the example value above)
  • output_buffering = 16384 (e.g., to stay consistent with the example value above)

whereas the “output_buffering” has to be given in MegaBytes but as a plain figure (without size-units as ‘M’ or ‘G’)

These client configurations have been proven by testing maximum file sizes of 16 GB:

  • Linux 32 Bit: Ubuntu, Firefox => 16GB
  • Windows 8 64 Bit: Google Chrome => 8GB

Here are some screenshots of my local cloud !

owncloud2

Capture03031